Somebody sits down with a guitar or piano - strums and hums until words come. That's all there is Next stage is either a band is hired - and maybe scores written out, or if act is a band they will rehearse until they think they have something. There is a newer way, when a production company creates a full backing track in a method which is similar to above, anyway and a singer has to put a vocal over the top and usually is credited as co-writer.
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Traditionally, music and language have been treated as different psychological faculties. This duality is reflected in older theories about the lateralization of speech and music in that speech functions were thought to be localized in the left and music functions in the right-hemisphere of the brain.
For example, the landmark paper of Bever and Chiarello emphasized the different roles of both hemispheres in processing music and language information, with the left hemisphere considered more specialized for propositional, analytic, and serial processing and the right-hemisphere more specialized for appositional, holistic, and synthetic relations.
This view has been challenged in recent years mainly because of the advent of modern brain imaging techniques and the improvement in neurophysiological measures to investigate brain functions. Using these innovative approaches, an entirely new view on the neural and psychological underpinnings of music and speech has evolved.
The findings of these more recent studies show that music and speech functions have many aspects in common and that several neural modules are similarly involved in speech and music Tallal and Gaab, There is also emerging evidence that speech functions can benefit from music functions and vice versa.
This field of research has accumulated a lot of new information and it is therefore timely to bring together the work of those researchers who have been most visible, productive, and inspiring in this field.
This special issue comprises a collection of 20 review and research papers that focus on the specific relationship between music and language. Of these 20 papers 12 are research papers that report entirely new findings supporting the close relationship between music and language functions.
Two papers report findings demonstrating that phonological awareness, which is pivotal for reading and writing skills, is closely related to pitch awareness and musical expertise Dege and Schwarzer, ; Loui et al.
Dege and colleagues even show that pre-schoolers can benefit from a program of musical training to increase their phonological awareness.
Three research papers focus on the relationship between tonal language expertise and musical pitch perception skills and on whether pitch-processing deficits might influence tonal language perception. Using ERPs obtained during the pitch and interval perception tasks, their study reveals earlier ERP responses in Mandarin speakers compared with controls to these pitch changes relative to no-change trials.
Apr 27, · Traditionally, music and language have been treated as different psychological faculties. This duality is reflected in older theories about the lateralization of speech and music in that speech functions were thought to be localized in the left and music functions in the right-hemisphere of the brain. Later, Schoenberg invented a new system for writing music called twelve-tone system. Music written with the twelve-tone system sounds strange to some, but is mathematical in nature, often making sense only after careful study. Music is a very versatile speech topic, with a range of different sub-topics about which you can speak. Ranging from specific musicians to different styles of music, a well-written speech about music can both inform and entertain a captive audience.
In their elegant paper, Peretz et al. Taken together, these two studies illustrate the cross-domain influence of language experience on the perception of pitch, suggesting that the native use of tonal pitch contours in language leads to a general enhancement in the acuity of pitch representations.
Their study revealed that the performance of congenital amusics was inferior to that of controls for all materials including the Mandarin language, this therefore suggesting a domain-general pitch-processing deficit.
Five research papers sought to examine interactions either between musical expertise and language functions or whether an interaction between musical and language functions is beneficial for phonetic perception.
Strait and Kraus report perceptual advantages in musicians for hearing and neural encoding of speech in background noise. They also argue that musicians possess a neural proficiency for selectively engaging and sustaining auditory attention to language and that music thus represents a potential benefit for auditory training.
Their study thus supports the notion of a strong relationship between linguistic and musical rhythm in songs. The fifth paper of this group Omigie and Stewart, demonstrates that the difficulties amusic individuals have with real-world music cannot be accounted for by an inability to internalize lower-order statistical regularities but may arise from other factors.
Although there are still some differences between music and speech-processing, there thus is growing evidence that speech and music processing strongly overlap. They showed that long-term vocal—motor training might lead to an increase in volume and microstructural complexity as indexed by fractional anisotropy measures of the arcuate fasciculus in singers.
Most likely, these anatomical changes reflect the necessity in singers of strongly linking together frontal and temporal brain regions. Typically, these regions are also involved in the control of many speech functions. The beneficial impact of music on speech functions has also been demonstrated by Vines et al.
They examined whether the melodic intonation therapy MIT in Broca's aphasics can be improved by simultaneously applying anodal transcranial direct current stimulation tDCS. In fact, they showed that the combination of right-hemisphere anodal-tDCS with MIT speeded up recovery from post-stroke aphasia.
In addition to these 12 research papers there are 8 review and opinion papers that highlight the tight link between music and language.
Patel proposes the so-called OPERA hypothesis with which he explains why music is beneficial for many language functions.
According to the OPERA hypothesis, when these conditions are met, neural plasticity drives the networks in question to function with higher precision than needed for ordinary speech communication. While Patel's paper is more an opinion paper that puts musical expertise into a broader context, the seven other reviews more or less emphasize specific aspects of the current literature on music and language.
Milovanov and Tervaniemi underscore the beneficial influence of musical aptitude on the acquisition linguistic skills as for example in acquiring a second language. In their extensive review of the literature, Besson et al. Shahin article reviews neurophysiological evidence supporting an influence of musical training on speech perception at the sensory level, and the question is discussed whether such transfer could facilitate speech perception in individuals with hearing loss.
This review also explains the basic neurophysiological measures used in the neurophysiological studies of speech and music perception.Other times, music is the best way to share my feelings with people I care about, or even with complete strangers.
Music is the most inspirational phenomena I can think of for a multitude of reasons. Music is a world of emotions and every time I hear a song I like, it shares some of these emotions with me. Oct 24, · Edit Article How to Write a Speech.
In this Article: Article Summary Sample Speeches The Basics Making It Effective Forming Your Speech After Your First Draft Community Q&A You may find that you are expected to speak at a public gathering or social event, and being prepared to speak at these occasions requires planning and preparing the text%().
Aug 12, · Essay Writing Music about thesis in introduction speech Similarly, investment theories of education, russian policy makers and it becomes possible when gifts are given great autonomy in determining how they are occurring across music writing essay generations and across conditions.
The music in classical music tells a story without lyrics which is an immensely powerful thing. I feel that this applies to the saying “music imitates life and life imitates music”. Songs can paint a picture, for example in classical and country music where a story is being told.
The music in classical music tells a story without lyrics which is an immensely powerful thing. Aug 17, · Music for writing essays so it becomes easier to write.
Productivity music that is a must have to stay focused. Music for creative writing that helps you create new ideas.