He also acknowledged that certain geographical areas with more complex ethnic compositions, including much of the Horn of Africa and the India subcontinent, did not fit into his racial paradigm. As such, he noted that: His Melanochroi thus eventually also comprised various other dark Caucasoid populations, including the Hamites e.
Majority Involvement in Minority Movements: The impetus to write it grew out of the rejection of whites from segments of the black power movement. It hopefully demonstrates that beyond the specific personalities involved and local circumstances, the structure of the situation makes such conflicts likely.
A number of colleagues graciously offered useful comments on this paper but we are particularly indebted to August Meier, Elliot Rudwick, and David Riesman for their extensive critiques.
An earlier version of this paper was read at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Washington, D.
Social movements seeking to change the subordinate status of ethnic minorities have drawn activists from both the minority and dominant groups. Conflict has at times developed between movement members of these two groups. In a comparative analysis of three movements --the civil rights movement, the anti-slavery cause in the U.
Ideologically, minority group activists viewed themselves as more radical and committed to that particular cause than did their dominant group co-workers and were more for a strategy of minority group self-help. Organizational conflict arose as majority members disproportionately assumed decision-making positions in the movement.
A third source of tension developed because some movement members were carriers of prejudices and hostilities of the larger social milieu.
Outsiders frequently played essential roles in the early phases of these movements, but pressures developed on majority members to reduce involvement or withdraw altogether.
An issue that leftist movements in America have continually confronted concerns the disadvantaged position of various racial and ethnic groups. Awareness of the discrimination, exploitation, and indifference long faced by black Americans was a primary catalyst in the creation of the New Left in the past decade.
However, as the history of the civil rights movement of the sixties has shown, this concentration of energy on the situation of an oppressed minority was not without severe problems.
In particular, sharp conflict developed over the participation of whites in organizations who resources were primarily devoted to working for and within the black community. As the civil rights effort evolved, the position of whites in the movement took on an increasingly ambiguous nature, eventually culminating in the exclusion or voluntary withdrawal of whites from central roles in the struggle and the emergence of the ideology of Black Power.
Was this development entirely unique to the civil rights movement? Perhaps there are structural elements in this type of political movement which would inevitably lead to acute tension between dominant and subordinate group activists.
One manner in which to deal with this question is through the comparative analysis of similar movements. There are of course an immense variety of political movements in which both insiders and outsiders played important roles.
However, for direct contrast with the civil rights effort we sought movements whose primary concern was altering the depressed condition of a minority group defined along racial or ethnic lines. Two efforts seemed particularly well-suited for a comparative analysis: In a cursory examination of these movements and of the civil rights effort, we were struck by the poignant and ironic parallels in the conflict that often developed between blacks and whites, or Untouchables and caste Hindus, working together in a common movement to bring about change.
All three movements were intensely committed to ending the oppression of a relatively small ethnic or racial minority whose condition was also of significant societal-wide concernall were predominantly left-liberal in ideology and strategy but included strong radical currents, all had histories stretching over at least several decades, all took on a variety of organizational forms involving large numbers of people, all had both minority and dominant group members active in the struggle, and all were plagued by recurrent tensions between these two groups.
In this paper we attempt to draw out several sociological themes which appear to be typically associated with outsider involvement in minority movements. The recent American civil rights movement originated in the deteriorating situation confronting blacks as the nineteenth century drew to a close and the weakness of Booker T.
Over the decades it has primarily been concerned with legal attacks on discriminatory practices. Since the Second World War, however a variety of organizations e.
Strategies became more militant, nonviolent direct action in various forms spread widely, particularly in the early sixties, and the movement attracted a new generation of less affluent blacks and young northern whites. More recently the radicalization has led to the emergence of black nationalist and socialist ideologies within the movement, and whites have assumed a much more marginal role.
The antislavery crusade followed a course extending over a comparable period, with early abolitionist sentiment finding organizational expression by the time of independence. In a major effort to facilitate the return of free blacks and manumitted slaves to Africa was formalized in the American Colonization Society, but few departed and this solution to slavery was discredited by the prevalence of anti-black motives underlying the involvement of many advocates.
By the s more direct attacks on bondage were current and the New England and American Anti-Slavery Societies founded in that decade amalgamated diverse political strains under a common desire to end slavery immediately and unconditionally.
In the following decades the numerical strength of the movement increased dramatically; by the fifties, the several thousand abolitionist societies claimed a membership in the hundreds of thousands. Abolition of slavery was the unifying cause, but serious schisms rent the movement throughout its history, in some cases resulting in separate organizations.
In India the more than sixty million Untouchables, culturally and religiously excluded from the Hindu fold, and economically very depressed, have thrust up a variety of protest movements, ranging from Sanskritization to religious cults to struggles for political power.To zero in on the white underclass in or near slaveholding areas is, understandably, to dwell on the fraught dynamic between poor whites and enslaved African Americans and its role in the national.
T.H. White's troubled heart: women in The once and future king. [Kurth Sprague] Home. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. Search. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library.
Create women in The once and future king a . This theorem has far-reaching implications for an understanding of race relations as well as the role of women in the church and in society, for "all social reality is defined, [and] power comes from the ability to control the definition of situations.".
The King's court was kept in the city of Ghánah, which, according to the author of the 'Book of Roger' (El Idrisi), and the author of the 'Book of Roads and Realms' (El Bekri), is divided into two parts, standing on both banks of the Nile, and ranks among the largest and most populous cities of the world.
May 15, · I'd like to have someone give me an answer to that. Why is it our white women want to marry black men?
Why is it our black men want to marry white women? " Of course, there was plenty of White men that married Black woman. The Whites in the audience did not protest that I know of. Dr. King was quoted as calling on. Majority Involvement in Minority Movements: Civil Rights, Abolition, Untouchability Journal of Social Issues, Vol.
27, No. 1, , pp. many of the early antislavery societies, and for hooking these into a national system. In the case of civil rights, whites played a crucial role in the founding of the NAACP, the Once outsiders.