Dark Night of the Soul 5. Please reference Richard Moore if you use any of his comments. Here is another helpful and interesting perspective from Mussarat Mashhadi, December I feel there is another stage which is important; this I believe is the stage in which a person having reached the fourth level is capable of enhancing the same skill or may be if required has the ability to retrace his learning in order to develop a new set of skills for the same function type writer vs.
Competence as an ethical and legal concept ancient Greek philosophers such as PlatoAristotleand their descendants opined that justice cannot be defined and that it was a divine mystery, Valluvar positively suggested that a divine origin is not required to define the concept of justice.
In the words of V. Nedunchezhiyanjustice according to Valluvar "dwells in the minds of those who have knowledge of the standard of right and wrong; so too deceit dwells in the minds which breed fraud.
Men should seek the sovereign good that Descartes, following Zenoidentifies with virtue, as this produces a solid blessedness or pleasure. For Epicurus the sovereign good was pleasure, and Descartes says that in fact this is not in contradiction with Zeno's teaching, because virtue produces a spiritual pleasure, that is better than bodily pleasure.
Regarding Aristotle 's opinion that happiness depends on the goods of fortune, Descartes does not deny that these goods contribute to happiness, but remarks that they are in great proportion outside one's own control, whereas one's mind is under one's complete control. In Kant's view, to be goodhearted, benevolent and sympathetic is not regarded as true virtue.
The only aspect that makes a human truly virtuous is to behave in accordance with moral principles. Kant presents an example for more clarification; suppose that you come across a needy person in the street; if your sympathy leads you to help that person, your response does not illustrate your virtue.
In this example, since you do not afford helping all needy ones, you have behaved unjustly, and it is out of the domain of principles and true virtue.
Kant applies the approach of four temperaments to distinguish truly virtuous people. According to Kant, among all people with diverse temperaments, a person with melancholy frame of mind is the most virtuous whose thoughts, words and deeds are one of principles.
Friedrich Nietzsche[ edit ] Friedrich Nietzsche 's view of virtue is based on the idea of an order of rank among people. For Nietzsche, the virtues of the strong are seen as vices by the weak and slavish, thus Nietzsche's virtue ethics is based on his distinction between master morality and slave morality.
Nietzsche promotes the virtues of those he calls "higher men", people like Goethe and Beethoven. According to Nietzsche these higher types are solitary, pursue a "unifying project", revere themselves and are healthy and life-affirming. The 'Higher type' also "instinctively seeks heavy responsibilities" WP in the form of an "organizing idea" for their life, which drives them to artistic and creative work and gives them psychological health and strength.
Finally, a Higher type affirms life because he is willing to accept the eternal return of his life and affirm this forever and unconditionally. In the last section of Beyond Good and EvilNietzsche outlines his thoughts on the noble virtues and places solitude as one of the highest virtues: And to keep control over your four virtues: He had a checklist in a notebook to measure each day how he lived up to his virtues.
They became known through Benjamin Franklin's autobiography. Eat not to Dullness. Drink not to Elevation. Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself. Let all your Things have their Places. Let each Part of your Business have its Time.
Resolve to perform what you ought. Perform without fail what you resolve. Make no Expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.
Be always employed in something useful. Cut off all unnecessary Actions. Use no hurtful Deceit.
Think innocently and justly; and, if you speak, speak accordingly. Wrong none, by doing Injuries or omitting the Benefits that are your Duty. Forbear resenting Injuries so much as you think they deserve. Tolerate no Uncleanness in Body, Clothes or Habitation.
Be not disturbed at Trifles, or at Accidents common or unavoidable. Imitate Jesus and Socrates. Contemporary views[ edit ] Virtues as emotions[ edit ] Marc Jackson in his book Emotion and Psyche puts forward a new development of the virtues.
He identifies the virtues as what he calls the good emotions "The first group consisting of lovekindnessjoyfaithawe and pity is good"  These virtues differ from older accounts of the virtues because they are not character traits expressed by action, but emotions that are to be felt and developed by feeling not acting.The concept of 'competence' in medical ethics.
Controversy, alternatives, and decisions in complying with the legal doctrine of informed consent. Radiology.
Jan; (1)– Articles from Journal of Medical Ethics are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group. The supervisor as gatekeeper: Reflections on Ethical Standards , , , and 'Gatekeeping' aspects of the supervisory role provide a helpful lens through which to explore the ethical dimensions of supervision.
Bioethics. Bioethics is a rather young academic inter-disciplinary field that has emerged rapidly as a particular moral enterprise against the background of the revival of applied ethics in the second half of the twentieth century.
Competency frameworks, when done well, can increase clarity around performance expectations and establish a clear link between individual and organisational performance. When developing and implementing a competency framework, care needs to be taken to balance detail with flexibility and avoid an.
ABA Model Code of Professional Responsibility () PREFACE. On August 14, , at the request of President Lewis F.
Powell, Jr., the House of Delegates of the American Bar Association created a Special Committee on Evaluation of Ethical Standards to examine the then current Canons of Professional Ethics and to make recommendations for changes.
The American Psychological Association's (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (hereinafter referred to as the Ethics Code) consists of an Introduction, a Preamble, five General Principles (A-E) and specific Ethical ph-vs.com Introduction discusses the intent, organization, procedural considerations, and scope of application .