This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The purpose of this research paper is to compare health care systems in three highly advanced industrialized countries: The first part of the research paper will focus on the description of health care systems in the above-mentioned countries while the second part will analyze, evaluate and compare the three systems regarding equity and efficiency.
Manipulative and body-based methods, and Energy therapies. As the name implies, alternative medical systems is a category that extends beyond a single modality, and refers to an entire system of theory and practice that developed separately from conventional medicine.
Examples of these systems include traditional Chinese medicine, ayurvedic medicine, homeopathy, and naturopathy. The second category in the NCCAM classification scheme is mind-body interventions, which include practices that are based on the human mind, but that have an effect on the human body and physical health, such as meditation, prayer, and mental healing.
The third category, biologically based therapies, includes specialized diets, herbal products, and other natural products such as minerals, hormones, and biologicals. Specialized diets include those proposed by Drs.
Atkins and Ornish, as well as the broader field of functional foods that may reduce the risk of disease or promote health. A few of the well-known herbals for which there is evidence of effectiveness include St.
An example of a nonherbal natural product is fish oil for the treatment of cardiovascular conditions.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States identifies an urgent need for health systems research that focuses on identifying the elements of these models, the outcomes of care delivered in these models, and whether these models are cost-effective when compared to conventional practice settings. With the United States spending more on health care than any other industrialized nation, nonpartisan agreement emerged that controlling health-care costs was essential to the stability of the US economy. In , health care costs paid to hospitals, doctors, diagnostic laboratories, pharmacies, medical device manufacturers and other components of the health care system, consumed an estimated 14 percent of the gross national product of the United States, the largest of any country in the world.
The fourth category, manipulative and body-based methods, includes therapies that involve movement or manipulation of the body. Chiropractic is the best known in this category, and chiropractors are licensed to practice in every U. A defining feature of chiropractic treatment is spinal manipulation, also known as spinal adjustment, to correct spinal joint Page 19 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States.
The National Academies Press.
Massage therapy is another example of a body-based therapy. The final category described by NCCAM is energy therapies which include the manipulation and application of energy fields to the body. In addition to electromagnetic fields outside of the body, it is hypothesized that energy fields exist within the body.
The existence of these biofields has not been experimentally proven; however, a number of therapies include them, such as qi gong, Reiki, and therapeutic touch.
A different approach to classifying CAM modalities is a descriptive taxonomy that groups therapies according to their philosophical and theoretical identities Kaptchuk and Eisenberg, Practices are divided into two groups.
The first group appeals to the general public and has become popularly known as CAM. This group includes professionalized or distinct medical systems e.
The second group includes practices that are more relevant to specific populations, such as ethnic or religious groups e. This discussion of definitions shows that no clear and consistent definition of CAM exists, nor is there a recognized taxonomy to organize the field, although the one proposed by NCCAM is commonly used.
This modified definition states that Complementary and alternative medicine CAM is a broad domain of resources that encompasses health systems, modalities, and practices and their accompanying theories and beliefs, other than those intrinsic to the dominant health system of a particular society or culture in a given historical period.
CAM includes such resources perceived by their users as associated with positive health outcomes. The committee chose this definition for several reasons.Feb 12, · Comparisons of Health Care Systems in the United States, Germany and Canada The introduction of various Managed Care Organizations and such new government policies as selective contracting (a situation when a third party contracts exclusively with a preselected set of medical providers) have limited the degree to .
Starr provides an excellent overview of the history of health-care reform in the United States, highlighting key reform movements and events, from the development of health insurance through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of today.
Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s In a Name? Share: On This Page. Complementary Versus Alternative; Integrative Medicine; The use of integrative approaches to health and wellness has grown within care settings across the United States.
Researchers are currently exploring the potential benefits of integrative health. A review of the health care systems of five different countries suggests that the United States system is not necessarily the best health delivery system in terms of access —especially when compared to that of England and Canada (Weiss & Lonnquist, ).
In , health care costs paid to hospitals, doctors, diagnostic laboratories, pharmacies, medical device manufacturers and other components of the health care system, consumed an estimated 14 percent of the gross national product of the United States, the largest of any country in the world.
The first powerpoint presents an overview of what home health care is, provides a brief history of home health care in the United States, and reviews the Medicare home health care program.
The second powerpoint discusses the role of the physician in home health care and outlines the benefits of home health care to patients and to the health care system.